Kamis, 12 Februari 2015

All About Cinnamon

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Cinnamon (English), or Kayu manis (Indonesia and malaysia), Canelle (French), Canela(Portugal) is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods. While Cinnamomum verum is sometimes considered to be "true cinnamon", most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from related species, which are also referred to as "cassia" to distinguish them from "true cinnamon".[1]
Cinnamon is the name for perhaps a dozen species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus Cinnamomum in the family Lauraceae. Only a few of them are grown commercially for spice.[1]

In classical times, four types of cinnamon were distinguished (and often confused):
·         Cassia (Hebrew קציעה qəṣi`â), the bark of Cinnamomum iners from Arabia and Ethiopia, literally 'the peel of the plant' which is scraped off the tree
·         True cinnamon (Hebrew קִנָּמוֹן qinnamon), the bark of C. verum (also called C. zeylanicum) from Sri Lanka
·         Malabathrum or malobathrum (from Sanskrit तमालपत्रम्tamālapattram, literally "dark-tree leaves"), several species including C. tamalafrom the north of India
·         Serichatum, C. cassia from Seres, that is, China
Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity. It was imported to Egypt as early as 2000 BC, but those who report it had come from China confuse it with cassia. Cinnamon was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a gift fit for monarchs and even for a god: a fine inscription records the gift of cinnamon and cassia to the temple of Apollo at Miletus. Though its source was kept mysterious in the Mediterranean world for centuries by the middlemen who handled the spice trade, to protect their monopoly as suppliers, cinnamon is native to BangladeshSri Lanka, the Malabar Coast of India, and Burma.[1]
The first Greek reference to kasia is found in a poem by Sappho in the seventh century BC. According to Herodotus, both cinnamon and cassia grew in Arabia, together with incense, myrrh, and ladanum, and were guarded by winged serpents. The phoenix was reputed to build its nest from cinnamon and cassia. Herodotus mentions other writers who believed the source of cassia was the home of Dionysos, located somewhere east or south of Greece.[1]
The Greeks used kásia or malabathron to flavour wine, together with absinth wormwood (Artemisia absinthium). While Theophrastus gives a good account of the plants, he describes a curious method for harvesting: worms eat away the wood and leave the bark behind.[1]
Egyptian recipes for kyphi, an aromatic used for burning, included cinnamon and cassia from Hellenistic times onward. The gifts of Hellenistic rulers to temples sometimes included cassia and cinnamon as well as incense, myrrh, and Indian incense (kostos), so one might conclude that the Greeks used it for similar purposes.[1]
The Hebrew Bible makes specific mention of the spice many times: first when Moses is commanded to use both sweet cinnamon (Hebrew: קִנָּמוֹן, qinnāmôn) and cassia in the holy anointing oil; in Proverbs where the lover's bed is perfumed with myrrhaloes, and cinnamon; and in Song of Solomon, a song describing the beauty of his beloved, cinnamon scents her garments like 'the smell of Lebanon'. Cassia was also part of the ketoret, the consecrated incense described in the Hebrew Bible and Talmud. It was offered on the specialized incense altar in the time when the Tabernacle was located in the First and Second Jerusalem temples. The ketoret was an important component of the temple service in Jerusalem. Psalm 45:8 mentions the garments of the king (or of Torah scholars) that smell of myrrh, aloes, and cassia.[1]
Pliny gives an account of the early spice trade across the Red Sea that cost Rome 100 million sesterces each year. Cinnamon was brought around the Arabian peninsula on "rafts without rudders or sails or oars", taking advantage of the winter trade winds. Pliny also mentions cassia as a flavouring agent for wine.[1]
According to Pliny, a Roman pound (327 grams (11.5 oz)) of cassia, cinnamon, or serichatum cost up to 300 denarii, the wage of ten months' labour. Diocletian's Edict on Maximum Prices from 301 AD gives a price of 125 denarii for a pound of cassia while an agricultural labourer earned 25 denarii per day. Cinnamon was too expensive to be commonly used on funeral pyres in Rome, but the Emperor Nero is said to have burned a year's worth of the city's supply at the funeral for his wife Poppaea Sabina in AD 65.[1]
Malabathrum leaves (folia) were used in cooking and for distilling an oil used in a caraway sauce for oysters by the Roman gourmet Gaius Gavius Apicius. Malabathrum is among the spices that, according to Apicius, any good kitchen should contain.[1]
The famous Commagenum unguent produced in Commagene, in present-day eastern Turkey, was made from goose fat aromatised with cinnamon oil and spikenard. Malobathrum from Egypt (Dioscorides I, 63) was based on beef fat and contained cinnamon, as well; one pound cost 300 denarii. The Roman poet Martial (VI, 55) made fun of Romans who drip unguents, smell of cassia and cinnamon taken from a bird's nest, and look down on a man who does not smell at all.[1]
Through the Middle Ages, the source of cinnamon was a mystery to the Western world. From reading Latin writers who quoted Herodotus, Europeans had learned that cinnamon came up the Red Sea to the trading ports of Egypt, but where it came from was less than clear. When the Sieur de Joinville accompanied his king to Egypt on crusade in 1248, he reported – and believed – what he had been told: that cinnamon was fished up in nets at the source of the Nile out at the edge of the world (i.e., Ethiopia). Marco Polo avoided precision on the topic. Herodotus and other authors named Arabia as the source of cinnamon: they recounted that giant cinnamon birds collected the cinnamon sticks from an unknown land where the cinnamon trees grew and used them to construct their nests, and that the Arabs employed a trick to obtain the sticks. Pliny the Elder wrote in the first century that traders had made this up to charge more, but the story remained current in Byzantium as late as 1310.[1]
The first mention that the spice grew in Sri Lanka was in Zakariya al-Qazwini's Athar al-bilad wa-akhbar al-‘ibad ("Monument of Places and History of God's Bondsmen") about 1270. This was followed shortly thereafter by John of Montecorvino in a letter of about 1292.[1]
Indonesian rafts transported cinnamon directly from the Moluccas to East Africa , where local traders then carried it north to Alexandria in Egypt.Venetian traders from Italy held a monopoly on the spice trade in Europe, distributing cinnamon from Alexandria. The disruption of this trade by the rise of other Mediterranean powers, such as the Mamluk sultans and the Ottoman Empire, was one of many factors that led Europeans to search more widely for other routes to Asia.[1]
When Portuguese traders landed in Ceylon (Sri Lanka), they restructured the traditional production and management of cinnamon by the Sinhalese. They established a fort on the island in 1518 and protected Ceylon as their cinnamon monopoly for over a hundred years. Later, Sinhalese held the monopoly for cinnamon in Ceylon.[1]
Dutch traders finally dislodged the Portuguese by allying with the inland Kingdom of Kandy. They established a trading post in 1638, took control of the manufactories by 1640, and expelled the remaining Portuguese by 1658. "The shores of the island are full of it," a Dutch captain reported, "and it is the best in all the Orient. When one is downwind of the island, one can still smell cinnamon eight leagues out to sea." The Dutch East India Company continued to overhaul the methods of harvesting in the wild and eventually began to cultivate its own trees.[1]
In 1767, Lord Brown of the British East India Company established Anjarakkandy Cinnamon Estate near Anjarakkandy in Cannanore (now Kannur) district of Kerala, and this estate became Asia's largest cinnamon estate. The British took control of Ceylon from the Dutch in 1796. However, the importance of the monopoly of Ceylon was already declining, as cultivation of the cinnamon tree spread to other areas, the more common cassia bark became more acceptable to consumers, and coffeeteasugar, and chocolatebegan to outstrip the popularity of traditional spices.[1]


Global annual production of cinnamon and cassia amounts to 27,500–35,000 tons. Cinnamomum verum accounts for 7,500–10,000 tons of production, with the remainder produced by other species. Sri Lanka produces 80–90% of the world's supply of C. verum, but that is the only species grown there; C. verum is also cultivated on a commercial scale in Seychelles and Madagascar. Global production of the other species averages 20,000–25,000 tons, of which Indonesia produces around two-thirds of the total, with significant production in ChinaIndia and Vietnam are also minor producers.[1]
Cinnamon is cultivated by growing the tree for two years, then coppicing it, i.e., cutting the stems at ground level. The following year, about a dozen new shoots will form from the roots, replacing those that were cut. A number of pests such as Colletotrichum gloeosporioidesDiplodiaspp and (Stripe canker) Phytophthora cinnamomi can affect that growing plants, sometimes leading to death[1]

The stems must be processed immediately after harvesting while the inner bark is still wet. The cut stems are processed by scraping off the outer bark, then beating the branch evenly with a hammer to loosen the inner bark, which is then pried off in long rolls. Only 0.5 mm (0.02 in) of the inner bark is used; the outer, woody portion is discarded, leaving metre-long cinnamon strips that curl into rolls ("quills") on drying. The processed bark will dry completely in four to six hours, provided it is in a well-ventilated and relatively warm environment. Once dry, the bark is cut into 5- to 10-cm (2- to 4-in) lengths for sale. A less than ideal drying environment encourages the proliferation of pests in the bark, which may then require treatment by fumigation. Fumigated bark is not considered to be of the same premium quality as untreated bark.[1]

Sri Lanka cinnamon has a very thin, smooth bark with a light-yellowish brown colour and a highly fragrant aroma. In recent years in Sri Lanka, mechanical devices have been developed to ensure premium quality and worker safety and health, following considerable research by the universities in that country, led by the University of Ruhuna.[1]


A number of species are often sold as cinnamon:
·         Cinnamomum cassia (Cassia or Chinese cinnamon, the most common type)
·         C. burmannii (Korintje, Padang cassia, or Indonesian cinnamon)
·         C. loureiroi (Saigon cinnamon, Vietnamese cassia, or Vietnamese cinnamon)
·         C. verum (Sri Lanka cinnamon or Ceylon cinnamon)

Cassia is the strong spicy flavour that is associated with cinnamon rolls and other such baked goods, as it handles baking conditions well. Chinese cinnamon is generally a medium to light reddish brown, hard and woody in texture, and thicker (2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) thick), as all of the layers of bark are used. Ceylon cinnamon, using only the thin inner bark, has a lighter brown colour, a finer, less dense and more crumbly texture, and is considered to be subtler and more aromatic in flavour than cassia, losing much of its flavour during cooking.[1]
Levels of the blood-thinning agent coumarin in Ceylon cinnamon are much lower than those in cassia.
The barks, when whole, are easily distinguished, and their microscopic characteristics are also quite distinct. Ceylon cinnamon sticks (quills) have many thin layers and can easily be made into powder using a coffee or spice grinder, whereas cassia sticks are much harder. Indonesian cinnamon is often sold in neat quills made up of one thick layer, capable of damaging a spice or coffee grinder. Saigon cinnamon (C. loureiroi) and Chinese cinnamon (C. cassia) are always sold as broken pieces of thick bark, as the bark is not supple enough to be rolled into quills. The powdered bark is harder to distinguish, but if it is treated with tincture of iodine (a test for starch), little effect is visible with pure Ceylon cinnamon, but when Chinese cinnamon is present, a deep-blue tint is produced.[1]

In Sri langka: The hugest cultivation of cinnamon, make a grading system from one species cinnamon. The Sri Lankan grading system divides the cinnamon quills into four groups:
·         Alba, less than 6 mm (0.24 in) in diameter
·         Continental, less than 16 mm (0.63 in) in diameter
·         Mexican, less than 19 mm (0.75 in) in diameter
·         Hamburg, less than 32 mm (1.3 in) in diameter
These groups are further divided into specific grades. For example, Mexican is divided into M00 000 special, M000000, and M0000, depending on quill diameter and number of quills per kilogram.[1]

Any pieces of bark less than 106 mm (4.2 in) long are categorized as quillings. Featherings are the inner bark of twigs and twisted shoots. Chips are trimmings of quills, outer and inner bark that cannot be separated, or the bark of small twigs.[1]

The Usefulness Of Cinnamon

1.    Use as an alcohol flavorant
Cinnamon is a popular flavoring in numerous alcoholic beverages. Cinnamon brandy concoctions, called "Cinnamon liqueur" and made with distilled alcohol, are popular in parts of Greece. In Europe, popular examples of such beverages are Maiwein (white wine with woodruff) and Żubrówka (vodka flavoured with bison grass).

2.    Use as Medicine
It’s possible we’re just brushing the surface here, for Chinese medicine and Ayurveda have long revered cinnamon as a superpower used to treat things such as colds, indigestion and cramps and also believed to improve energy, vitality and circulation. The following are eleven health benefits associated with this beloved spice that studies have suggested:[2]
1.    1/2 teaspoon of cinnamon per day can lower your bad cholesterol (or LDL).
2.    Cinnamon may help treat Type 2 Diabetes by lowering blood sugar levels and increasing the amount of insulin production in the body.
3.    Cinnamon has antifungal properties, and it’s been said that candida cannot live in a cinnamon environment. 
4.    Cinnamon can reduce the proliferation of leukemia and lymphoma cancer cells.
5.    Cinnamon has an anti-clotting effect on the blood.
6.    Honey and Cinnamon combined have been found to relieve arthritis pain.
7.    When added to food, cinnamon inhibits bacterial growth and food spoilage, making it a natural food preservative.
8.    Just smelling cinnamon boosts cognitive function and memory.
9.    Cinnamon fights the E. coli bacteria in unpasteurized juices.
10. Cinnamon has been found to be an effective natural remedy for eliminating headaches and migraine relief.
11. Cinnamon can also help stablize blood sugar (which is great for weight loss). A couple of dashes in your morning tea or cereal is all it takes!
Health Benefit of Cinnamon[3]
§  The active principles in the cinnamon spice are known to have anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-septic, local anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, rubefacient (warming and soothing), carminative and anti-flatulent properties.

§  Cinnamon spice has the highest anti-oxidant strength of all the food sources in nature. The total  measured ORAC (Oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value for this novel spice is 2,67,536 trolex equivalents (TE), which is many hundred times more than in chokeberry, apples, etc.

§  The spice contains health benefiting essential oils such as eugenol, a phenylpropanoids class of chemical compound, which gives pleasant, sweet aromatic fragrance to it. Eugenol has got local anesthetic and antiseptic properties, hence; employed in the dental and gum treatment procedures.

§  Other important essential oils in cinnamon include ethyl cinnamate, linalool, cinnamaldehyde, beta-caryophyllene, and methyl chavicol.

§  Cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon-sticks has been found to have anti-clotting action, prevents platelet clogging inside the blood vessels, and thereby helps prevent stroke, peripheral arterial and coronary artery diseases.

§  The active principles in this spice may increase the motility of the intestinal tract as well as help aid in the digestion by increasing gastro-intestinal enzyme secretions.

§  This spicy bark is an excellent source of minerals like potassium, calcium, manganese, iron, zinc, and magnesium. Iron is required for cellular metabolism as a co-factor and in RBC's production. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps control heart rate and blood pressure. Manganese and copper are chiefly used by the body as co-factors for the antioxidant enzyme,superoxide dismutase.

§  It also contains very good amounts of vitamin A, niacin, pantothenic acid, and pyridoxine.

§  Further, it is also a very good source of flavonoid phenolic anti-oxidants such as carotenes, zea-xanthin, lutein and cryptoxanthin.

3.            Use in Culinary
In order to keep the fragrance and flavor intact, cinnamon spice is generally powdered just before preparing dishes and added at the last moment in the cooking recipes, since prolonged cooking results in evaporation of its essential oils.[3]

§  Around the world, cinnamon spice is widely used as a spice. It is principally employed in cookery as a condiment and flavoring base. It is used in the preparation of chocolate and in some kinds of desserts, such as cinnamon-apple pie and cinnamon buns as well as pastries, bagels, sweet rolls, spicy candies, tea, hot cocoa, and liqueurs.
§  Cinnamon spice has been in use in the preparation of many popular dishes in Asian and Chinese cuisine since ancient times. Along with other spicy items (masala powder), it is being used in marinating chicken, fish and meats.
§  Some Indian vegetarian and chicken curries and rice dishes (biriyani) contain small amounts of ground powder. In the Middle East, it is used in meat and rice dishes.
§  It has also been used in the preparation of soups, barbecue sauces, pickling and as one of the ingredients in variety of curry powders.

Some-kind of cinnamon recipes

a.     Cinnamon Healthy Recipes: Cinnamon Flax Fruit[4]

·                 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
·                 4 tablespoons flax seeds
·                 Sliced banana or apple*


1.         Grind the flax seeds in a coffee grinder. Add cinnamon.
2.         Top fruit with flax mix.
This recipe makes four servings.
*Use bananas and green apples that are not fully ripe and contain less sugar.
(From Healthy Recipes for Your Nutritional Type by Dr. Mercola)

b.    Cinnamon Dolce Latte Syrup[5]
Ingredient :
-1 cup water
-3/4 cup packed light brown sugar
-1/4 cup white sugar
-1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
-1 tablespoon extract pure vanilli
Procedure :
1.    Place a saucepan over medium-high heat; add water, brown sugar, and white sugar. Whisk until sugar dissolves, 3 to 5 minutes. Whisk cinnamon into sugar mixture until incorporated. Continue whisking mixture until just before boiling and syrup-consistency, 3 to 5 more minutes. Remove saucepan from heat and stir in vanilla extract.

2.    Cool syrup completely, at least 1 hour. Pour syrup into a glass container and seal; store in refrigerator for up to 10 days.

Nutritional Information

Resource :

5.    http://allrecipes.com/Recipe/Cinnamon-Dolce-Latte-Syrup/

Sabtu, 19 April 2014

SEMANGKA ( Buah Yang Luar Biasa )

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Buah Semangka memang sangat mudah ditemukan di Indonesia, negara tropis. Buah ini menjadi primadona saat cuaca panas, dan harganya pun terjangkau untuk semua kalangan. buah ini selain rasanya yang lezat ternyata mengandung berbagai manfaat untuk kesehatan tubuh. penelitian akhir – akhir ini bahkan mengungkapkan bahwa semangka mampu merangsang meningkatnya gairah seks.

Buah semangka dengan nama latin citrullus lanatus,  memiliki kandungan air yang cukup tinggi sebesar 92 % dari total buah. Sehingga dengan tingginya kadar air yang terkandung, semangka efektif untuk melawan rasa haus dan mengatasi dehidrasi. semangka juga mengandung kalium dan kalsium sehingga baik untuk menghilangkan kolik.

Dalam semangka seberat 100 gram terkandung :
-          Protein 0,9 gram
-          Karbohidrat 11,6 gram
-          Vitamin A 876 IU.
-          Vitamin C 12,5 miligram.
-          kalsium ( Ca ) 10,8 miligram.
-          Fosfor ( P ) 16,9 miligram.
-          Magnesium ( Mg ) 15,4 miligram.

Manfaat Buah semangka
Selain rasanya yang enak dan menyegarkan, semangka ternyata memiliki berbagai khasiat yang bagus untuk mengatasi beberapa jenis gangguan tubuh. Semangka dapat digunakan untuk menghaluskan kulit dan menghilangkan flek hitam di wajah. Kulitnya mengandung klorofil, yang baik untuk kelenjar dan darah. dan beberapa manfaat semangka seperti berikut : .

1. Untuk Diet
Semangka adalah buah bebas lemak dan memiliki kombinasi kadar gula yang terbatas dan kadar air berlimpah, apalagi buah ini bersifat cepat mengenyangkan dalam lambung, sehingga buah ini dapat menjadi alternatif camilan yang sehat.

2. Mencegah Penuaan Dini
Antioksidan dalam semangka meliputi betakaroten dan vitamin C yang dapat membantu sel – sel tubuh tetap sehat. betakaroten, dikenal sebagai anti oksidan yang sangat baik juga membuat anda tetap berjiwa muda dan mencegah penuaan dini. likopen berguna juga untuk membuat wajah tampak bercahaya dan tampak segar.
Bagi lansia, buah semangka tidak hanya membantu memulihkan gangguan kesehatan lebih cepat, namun juga membantu meningkatkan kemampuan mental dan ketajaman daya ingat.

3. Menurunkan Demam

4. Ampuh mencegah sariawan

5. Memperkuat kerja jantung, mencegah dan menahan serangan jantung
Lypocene dan karotenoid yang ditemukan berlimpah di dalam semangka, terbukti meningkatkan fungsi jantung.

6. Membangkitkan libido pria
Likopen dalam buah semangka juga menyumbang khasiat khusus bagi pria yang telah menikah. buah ini bisa meningkatkan kesuburan dan membantu membangkitkan gairah seksual pria.
Percaya atau tidak, penelitian menunjukkan bahwa senyawa sitrulin dalam semangka, memiliki efek afrosidiak yang sama hebatnya dengan viagra, tapi sama sekali tanpa efek samping.

7. Merangsang keluarnya air seni lebih deras
Semangka merangsang pengeluaran air seni lebih deras sehingga sangat baik bagi mereka yang memiliki ganguan buang air kecil.

8. Mampu menurunkan kadar kolesterol, mencegah darah tinggi, dan Stroke
Semangka sangat baik bagi pengidap hipertensi / darah tinggi. Kandungan air, magnesium dan kaliumnya yang tinggi bisa menetralisasi dan menurunkan tekanan darah.
Selain itu, adanya karotenoid di dalamnya juga dapat mencegah pengerasan pada dinding arteri maupun pembuluh vena, sehingga dapat membantu mengurangi tekanan darah.

9. Mengeluarkan cacing usus

10. Bagus untuk infeksi kandung kemih

11. Membersihkan Ginjal
Karena mengandung banyak sekali kalium, yang sangat membantu dalam pembersihan racun – racun pada ginjal. selain itu, buah ini juga sangat membantu mengurangi konsentrasi jumlah asam urat dalam darah, sehingga dapat mengurangi kemungkinan terjadinya kerusakan dan pembentukan batu ginjal.

12. Meningkatkan kesehatan mata
Mengkonsumsi buah semangka secara teratur dapat menjauhkan anda dari rabun ayam. hal ini dikarenakan semangka kaya akan vitamin A dan betakaroten yang mampu memaksimalkan kesehatan mata.
Adanya betakaroten, vitamin C, lutein dan zeaxanthin dalam buah ini akan menjaga sebagai alat perlindungan mata dari degenerasi makula terkait usia, penyebab utama hilangnya penglihatan pada orang berusia lanjut. Senyawa – senyawa tersebut dan juga antioksidan yang terkandung didalamnya akan melindungi mata dari penyakit  lainnya seperti pengeringan air mata dan saraf optik, glaukoma, dll.

13. Mengobati Diabetes tipe 2
Para penderita diabetes seharusnya melakukan diet rendah gula. Semangka dapat menjadi salah satu pengganti gula alternatif karena rasanya yang manis namun kadar gulanya rendah. Selain itu, berbagai vitamin dan mineral didalamnya membantu berfungsinya senyawa insulin di dalam tubuh, sehingga mampu menurunkan tingkat gula darah.
Kandungan arginin yang tinggi pada buah semangka dapat membantu mengobati diabetes tipe 2 ( karena gaya hidup ). Penelitian menemukan arginin dapat meningkatkan metabolisme glukosa dan sensitifitas insulin, keduanya membantu menurunkan kadar glukosa yang tinggi dan berhubungan dengan diabetes.

14. Mencegah Kanker
Kandungan lycopene / likopen dalam semangka juga mampu mencegah kanker. likopen mampu menangkal radikal bebas yang masuk ke dalam tubuh, dan melumpuhkannya.

Fakta – Fakta tentang semangka
-          Semangka masih sekerabat dengan melon dan mentimun.
-          Semangka ternyata termasuk jenis sayur – sayuran , bukan buah.
-          Semangka mengandung 92 % air dan 8 % gula.
-          Lycopene, antioksidan dalam buah semangka, jenisnya sama dengan apa yang terkandung pada buah tomat mentah. secangkir semangka yang mengandung likopen setara dengan 2 buah tomat sedang yang mengandung likopen juga.
-          Semangka adalah sumber beta-carotene.
-         Kulit semangka adalah sumber alami citrulline, yaitu asam amino yang merangsang produksi nitric oksida yang memperlancar aliran darah melalui pembuluh arteri.

-        Penelitian membuktikan bahwa mengkonsumsi buah semangka dapat mengurangi resiko terhadap beberapa jenis kanker.

Sumber : - Sehat dan Bugar dengan terapi jus
              - Wikipedia